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Anales de la Facultad de Medicina

On-line version ISSN 2301-1254


BATALLA, Ana et al. X-linked Retinoschisis. A case report and genetic diagnosis analysis. Anfamed [online]. 2021, vol.8, n.2, e402.  Epub Dec 01, 2021. ISSN 2301-1254.

X-linked Retinoschisis is a genetic disease characterized by reduced visual acuity mainly in men due to juvenile macular degeneration. Its prevalence is 1/5000 men worldwide. It manifests from the first decade of life with loss of vision that progresses to adolescence and then remains stable until the 4th decade of life, when it may present a significant decline. The fundus exam usually shows schism. Carrier women rarely have symptoms. The gene involved is RS1 (Xp22.13), which encodes for Retinoschisin, a protein that participates in the structural and functional integrity of the retina. In affected cases, mutations that generate loss of protein function were demonstrated. The diagnosis is based on the clinical and family history, and is supported by ophthalmology evaluation; in most cases it can be confirmed by sequencing of the gene. The treatment consists of periodic ophthalmological control and surgery of the complications. We describe the case of a 2 year old boy with repeated episodes of retinal detachment and who has a family history of Retinoschisis by maternal line in male individuals. These were studied, and it was shown that they are carriers of the probably pathogenic variant c.466A> C (Arg156Gly) in the RS1 gene, which had been reported previously in a family of Chinese origin. It was shown that our patient presents the family mutation in hemizygous state, so this is the second family in which the segregation of this variant with Retinoschisis is confirmed.

Keywords : retinoschisis; retina; genética; X-linked inheritance; pediatric ophtalmology.

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