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Ciencias Psicológicas

versão On-line ISSN 1688-4221

Resumo

DANSILIO, Sergio. Brain and Dyslexia: A Revision. Cienc. Psicol. [online]. 2009, vol.3, n.2, pp.225-240. ISSN 1688-4221.

There is no genetically determined brain area for writing, alphabetization affects brain regions preadapted for other cognitive functions. Dyslexias, with a well documented genetic basis, are conditioned by cortical developmental anomalies in regions assigned to phonological and orthographic representational matching. There would be a posterior left hemispheric circuit with a ventral component linked to rapid orthographic visual discrimination, and a temporo-parietal dorsal one involved in the more effortful orthography-to-phonology matching between lexical and sublexical representations. Disorders in these posterior circuits are specific to dyslexia. The anterior circuit, centered by the inferior left frontal gyrus, is associated to the reading effort, when it requires phono-articulatory recoding. Disorders in other brain areas have been found. Magnocellular disturbs (rapid visual and auditive sequential discrimination) and cerebellar dysfunction (rapid association capacities, procedural learning) also have been described, although they are an inconstant phenomena and barely interpreted. For an adequate interpretation of multiple dyslexia cases, it must be considered the serie of co-morbidities that are frequently found, and usually are indicators of a more extended brain disorder

Palavras-chave : dyslexia; gyrus angularis; gyrus fusiforme; cerebellum; phonological processing.

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