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Archivos de Pediatría del Uruguay

Print version ISSN 0004-0584On-line version ISSN 1688-1249


CAGGIANI, Marina; HALTY, Margarita  and  DELFINO, Laura. Clinicopathologic correlation and evolution of lupus nephritis in children and adolescents. Arch. Pediatr. Urug. [online]. 2016, vol.87, n.1, pp.12-20. ISSN 0004-0584.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a low prevalence in the overall general population and this is lower in children. Child lupus nephropathy (LN) is more frequent and severe than in SLE adult patients, with greater disease morbidity and mortality. A prospective descriptive study of 20 children and adolescents with LN monitored in the Collagen Diseases Office of the Pereira Rossell Hospital between October, 2003 and September, 2013 was performed. The objective of this study was to describe clinical-serological features and the evolution of these patients and to correlate them with its anatomopathological findings. LN was diagnosed in 52,6% of the SLE patients, 70% were female with a female/male correlation of 2,3/1; 85% were Caucasian; median age at diagnosis was 12 years old. The clinical presentations were minor urinary findings (MUF) in 14 patients (0,7) and nephrotic syndrome (NS) in 4 (0,2), and another one nephritic syndrome. One patient presented no symptoms and had normal urinalysis. Severe proliferative classes predominated in18 patients (0.9); 13 (0.93) patients with MUF and all the patients with NS had LN classes III or IV. Isolated LN was not seen in the initial presentation. At the time of diagnosis antinuclear antibodies were positive in 19 patients (0.95); and anti DNA double stranded in 16 (0.8). Low C3 was found in 19 (0.95) and C4 in 15 (0.75), respectively. Average follow-up time was 4.2 years. At the end of follow-up 16 (0.8) were in remission, 4 of them in partial remission; all patients presented normal renal function except for one who evidenced severe renal failure and required hemodialysis and transplantation and had an excellent evolution. One patient died with pulmonary hemorrhage. The renal and patient survivals were 0.95 respectively. Treatment consisted in corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine associated with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil. Cyclophosphamide was administered to 8 patients with severe illness. This is the first national report of LN in children and adolescents. Conclusions: the predominant clinical presentation of LN was MUF with severe anatomopathological findings, classes III and IV, showing a clinical-pathological dissociation. Despite the high percentage of severe LN, early and adequate treatment, as well as a good compliance to it with periodic medical follow-up, were essential to achieve a favorable outcome of LN.


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