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Revista Uruguaya de Cardiología

versión impresa ISSN 0797-0048versión On-line ISSN 1688-0420


LAYERLE, Bernardo  y  VIGNOLO, Washington. Clinical care of dyslipidemias. Rev.Urug.Cardiol. [online]. 2019, vol.34, n.3, pp.401-433.  Epub 01-Dic-2019. ISSN 0797-0048.

In daily clinical practice the management of patients with dyslipidemias implies knowledge of relevant clinical scientific evidence, common sense, as respect of patient preferences.

There is strong evidence that treatment of dyslipidemias mainly with statins reduces morbidity and mortality in a wide group of patients with few side effects. A critical step in management of this individuals is to make the decision of whether statin treatment is indicated or not. There are patients that have a clear indication of statin use without any further cardiovascular risk calculation. Such is the case in secondary prevention, patients with extremely high low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (>190 mg/dl) and diabetics between 40 and 75 years-old. In all other patients, statin indication should start with a formal cardiovascular risk evaluation. American guidelines suggest using the Pooled Cohort Risk Equations and European guidelines prefer Heartscore. Both scoring systems stratify risk in four categories according to risk intensity. The absolute cardiovascular risk reduction obtained with treatment increases in parallel with the basal cardiovascular risk. This explains the recommendation that both treatment intensity and magnitude of low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering should increase as the risk of the patient increases. Recommendations provided by American and European guidelines do not always coincide. Thus, besides basal cardiovascular risk estimation, potential adverse drug effects and patient preferences should always be considered in the context of a clinician-patient frank discussion. Ezetimibe first and PCSK9 inhibitors eventually (currently limited by costs and availability) appear as the great allies of statins, when adequate doses are not tolerated or the target is not reached.

We will tackle the subject through five cases that illustrate the main clinical situations in which physicians have to adopt specific therapeutic decisions.

Palabras clave : Dyslipidemias; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Vascular risk; Low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

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