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Revista Uruguaya de Cardiología

On-line version ISSN 1688-0420

Abstract

GARCIA, Victoria et al. Obesity in children and adolescents associates early changes in structure and arterial function. Rev.Urug.Cardiol. [online]. 2015, vol.30, n.2, pp.139-147. ISSN 1688-0420.

Introduction: while it is accepted that in adults the obesity is associated to an increased risk of disease or cardiovascular events, little is known yet if childhood obesity leads also, and if so in what magnitude, to early arterial changes. The objective of this work was to characterize the functional and structural state of the arterial system in children and adolescents, and analyze the potential arterial changes associated with the presence of obesity. Methods: 224 asymptomatic children and adolescents were selected (age: 4-15 years; 93 females), with normal weight (n= 142; body mass index percentile (p BMI), 15£ p IMC< 85) or obesity (n= 82, p BMI ³ 97). Inclusion criteria were: not to present chronic co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular and/or renal), not being diabetic, not being cardio-active drugs consumers or being under treatment that could affect cardiovascular system. Clinical interview, anthropometrical evaluation was assessed and non-invasive arterial evaluation was performed, in which carotid Intima-media thickness (CIMT; ultrasonography/specific software), arterial peripheral and central aortic pressures (applanation tonometry), aortic stiffness (Carotid-femoral Pulse Wave Velocity, PWV; applanation tonometry) and vascular reactivity (flow-mediated dilation) measurement were analyzed. The results of children with normal weight and obesity were compared for both total population and children without dyslipemia. Results: compared with children with normal weight, and with independence of the presence of dyslipidemia, obese children had higher systolic and pulse peripheral and aortic blood pressure, larger diameters and carotid CIMT, increased aortic stiffness, and reduced flow-mediated vasodilation. Conclusion: obesity in children and adolescents leads to arterial remodeling, increased carotid thickness, aortic stiffness, central aortic pressure and reduced vascular reactivity.

Keywords : ARTERIAL PRESSURE; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; CAROTID INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS; EARLY DIAGNOSIS; ENDOTHELIUM / physiopathology; OBESITY / complications; PEDIATRIC OBESITY/ complications; ADOLESCENT; VASCULAR STIFFNESS.

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