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Revista Médica del Uruguay

versión impresa ISSN 0303-3295versión On-line ISSN 1688-0390

Resumen

BOVE, María Isabel et al. Overweight, obesity and high-blood pressure in 5 year-old children in 5 public preschool centers in Montevideo: prevalence and associated factors. Rev. Méd. Urug. [online]. 2020, vol.36, n.3, pp.31-64.  Epub 01-Sep-2020. ISSN 0303-3295.  http://dx.doi.org/10.29193/rmu.36.3.2.

Introduction:

in recent years, Uruguay has seen an increase of the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Scientific evidence has shown that early childhood conditions are determinant.

Objective:

to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and brachial blood pressure levels and identify associated risk factors in 5-year-old children who attend public preschool centers in Montevideo.

Method:

transversal study (7/2016-6/2017) in a representative sample of 771 5-year-old children from preschool centers in Montevideo. We assessed their history, eating habits, physical activity, sleeping habits, weight and maternal size. We recorded anthropometry and brachial blood pressure for each child.

Results:

the prevalence of overweight or obesity was 40.6% (CI 95%: 37.4- 44.3), obesity 16.5% (CI 95%: 13.9-19.1) and abdominal obesity 12.9% (CI 95%: 11.0-15.8). 29.4% of mothers reported overweight and 21.9% of them reported obesity. Sedentary lifestyle was found in 58.3%, long screen viewing in 60.4% and inadequate sleep in 40.9%. Frequent consumption of pastries, wafers and biscuits for breakfast, cold cuts during week days, preference of food they see in advertisements, and reported maternal overweight or obesity were associated to child obesity. Children with overweight and/or abdominal obesity evidenced higher levels of brachial blood pressure.

Conclusions:

prevalence of overweight and obesity in 5-year-old children from public preschool centers in Montevideo is high. Maternal overweight and obesity and habits in connection with eating, physical activity and amount of sleep are associated with this condition.

Palabras clave : Overweight; Pediatric obesity; Child; Hypertension; Prevalence; Risk factors.

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