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Revista Médica del Uruguay

versión On-line ISSN 1688-0390


PISABARRO, Raúl; RECALDE, Alicia; IRRAZABAL, Ernesto  y  CHAFTARE, Yenica. ENSO niños 1: Primera encuesta nacional de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños uruguayos. Rev. Méd. Urug. [online]. 2002, vol.18, n.3, pp.244-250. ISSN 1688-0390.

Summary Objective. To assess the incidence of overweight and obesity in Uruguayan infants aged between 9 and 12 years, and its associated factors through a representative national sample. Design. A study of urban population (Montevideo and other cities over 10.000 inhabitants) was undertaken during 2000. The sample represented the urban population (total population: 3 200 000; 91% of whom live in urban areas). A total of 886 9 to 12-year old children were interviewed (449 boys and 437 girls), 443 in Montevideo and 443 in other cities. Methods. Children were interviewed with one of their parents. They were weighed and measured (40 equal scales were used) with light clothes and barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated following sex and age tables(9), three categories were determined: normal weight (BMI < 85th), overweight (BMI = 85-94,9th) and medical obesity (BMI 95th). Questionnaire included food intake habits, daily hours of exercise, television and video games. Education and economical levels (EEL) of parents were stated. The present parent was weighed and measured. Family history on diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease was investigated. Results. Overweight was confirmed in 17% of the total children (BMI = 85-94,9th) and 9% were obese (BMI > 95th). No BMI sex-differences were observed (p=0,29). Menarcha was related to BMI (p=0,008). Children of mothers with type 2 diabetes had 15.2 more possibilities to be obese (RR 15,2, p=0,00000), particularly girls (RR 18,1). Out of the total sample, 31,7% did no exercise apart from school. Among those who did exercise, there was a negative relation between weekly hours of exercise (average) and BMI (p=0,03). Obese children ingested more calories than overweight and normal weight children (p=0,043). Children's BMI and parents' BMI were associated (p=0,00002). In contrast with our data for adults(23), no significant association was seen between children's BMI and parents' EEL (p=0,11). Conclusion. In Uruguay, aproximately 1 out of 4 children is overweight or obese (26%) and 1 out of 10 (9%) is obese at medical risk. Mothers with type 2 diabetes increased by 15,2 the condition of obesity in her descendants, especially female descendants. These figures allow to predict an increase in cases of type 2 diabetes and heart diseases in the future.

Palabras clave : OBESIDAD [epidemiología]; OBESIDAD MÓRBIDA [epidemiología]; URUGUAY [epidemiología]; NIÑO.

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