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Anestesia Analgesia Reanimación

versión impresa ISSN 0255-8122

Resumen

GRUNBERG, Gustavo et al. DEXAMETASONA PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DE NÁUSEAS Y VÓMITOS POSTOPERATORIOS. Anest Analg Reanim [online]. 2006, vol.21, n.2, pp. 3-3. ISSN 0255-8122.

SUMMARY Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are one of the most frequent anesthetic complications with an incidence rate of 20-30%. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dexamethasone at a dose of 8 mg I.V. for PONV prevention. METHODOLOGY: we ran a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study in 104 patients who underwent elective surgery. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: Group P (Placebo) and Group D (Dexamethasone 8 mg I.V.). A single dose of 8 mg dexamethasone (2 ml) or saline solution (2 ml) was administered during anesthetic induction. During the first postoperative hours, patients were evaluated in the Postanesthetic Care Unit (PACU), and then, at 24 hours, in their rooms. Patients were assessed for PONV, anti-emetic therapy requirements, and other complications. RESULTS: Group P had a total of 53 patients, and Group D had a total of 51 patients. The total rate of PONV (early and late) was 36% in Group P and 12% in Group D (p < 0.01). 23% of the patients in Group P and 12% in Group D, reported PONV in PACU (p > 0.05). Frequency of NVPO in the ward (up to 24 hours) was 25% for Group P and 2% for Group D (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dexamethasone at a dose of 8 mg was very effective for reducing the frequency of PONV, mainly late ones.

Palabras llave : dexamethasone; postoperative nausea and vomiting; PONV.

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